London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of Great Britain. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. It is one of the world's leading financial centres and has the fifth-or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world depending on measurement. London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world's largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic. It is the world's leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra-high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's 43 universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe, and according to 2014 report it is placed first in the world university rankings. According to the report London also ranks first in the world in software, multimedia development and design, and shares first position in technology readiness.
London has a diverse range of peoples and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken. The Office for National Statistics estimated its mid-2014 population to be 8,538,689, the largest of any municipality in the European Union, and accounting for 12.5 percent of the UK population. It is a leading global city, with strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transport all contributing to its prominence. Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. It is the home to numerous museums, galleries, libraries, sporting events and other cultural institutions, including the British Museum, National, Tate Modern, British Library and 40 West End theatres.
London has a temperate oceanic climate similar to all of southern Britain. Temperature extremes for all sites in the area range from 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) at Kew during August down to −16.1 °C (3.0 °F) at Northolt during January. Summers are generally warm and sometimes hot.